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APA Referencing 7th ed.: Personal communication

Personal Communication/ Interviews

As this material is not recoverable or archived, it is not included in a reference list, but is acknowledged in-text. Includes tutor comments, own class notes, clinical learning guides (CLG), student learning journals (SLJ),  private letters, emails, telephone conversations, interviews, and private posts to social media.  These are cited in-text only and are not included in the Reference list. 

In text citation

C. Smith (personal communication, March 16, 2018) described a time when…

OR

There was a time... (C. Smith, personal communication, March 16, 2018).

Reference list

As the information is not retrievable there is no entry in the reference list.

Māori traditional knowledge and oral traditions

If the information has been published or is recoverable by the reader (e.g. video, book, article or podcast), cite it in text and include in the reference list in the correct format for the type of resource.

If the information has not been published or is not recoverable by the reader, use a variation of the personal communication citation in text. With traditional knowledge it is important that you check that it is appropriate to use it in your writing and that you have recorded it accurately. The in-text citation should include their name, the date you spoke/communicated with them, their iwi affiliation(s) and where they live. The iwi affiliation and place they live gives context to the information as traditional knowledge can vary from iwi to iwi.

Example

We spoke with Allana Prestney, nee Baker (Ngati Raukawa, Ngati Toa, Te Atiawa, lives in New Plymouth, personal communication, January 19, 2020) about ...

*In this case, adding Allana's maiden name (Baker) gives the reader more information about her whakapapa and the knowledge that she has shared.

Reference list

As the information is not retrievable there is no entry in the reference list.

Reusing your own work

To avoid self plagiarism, you must reference anything that you are reusing from a previously written  assignment submission. It is strongly advised that you check with your tutor before you reuse your own work for a new assignment. As your assignment is an unpublished work with limited access, treat your reference as a personal communication. Use square brackets to record the course name that the original assignment was written for. Use the submission date of the original assignment for the date information.

In text citation

Use the format:

(Your initial and surname, personal communication [course name], submission date of original assignment).

(J. Brown, personal communication [BN 5.012 assignment], September 23, 2018).

OR

J. Brown reported that... (personal communication [BN5.012 assignment], September 23, 2018).

Reference list

As the information is not retrievable there is no entry in the reference list.